The Orthopedic Center was originally organized in Mandaluyong, Rizal by the American Army in 1945 as the Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) No. 1, to take care of civilian casualties during the liberation of Manila and its suburbs.
After it was turned over to the Philippine government, its functions were redirected to look after accident victims and orthopedic cases. Its name was later changed to Mandaluyong Emergency Hospital then, to National Orthopedic Hospital.
In 1963, the hospital was relocated to Quezon City. Its authorized bed capacity was increased from 200 to 500 then to 700. The hospital through the Hospital Chief, Benjamin V. Tamesis, MD, pioneered the introduction of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy courses in the Philippines. Both courses were later absorbed by the University of the Philippines and was placed under the College of Medicine, then later became the School of Allied Medical Professions, now known as College of Allied Medical Professions.
In 1982, it was renamed National Orthopedic Hospital-Rehabilitation Medical Center (NOH-RMC), and again to Philippine Orthopedic Center in 1989, by virtue of Batas Pambansa No. 301 and Republic Act 6786, respectively.